2017年12月31日日曜日

数学 - Python - JavaScript - 解析学 - 微分と基本的な関数 - 指数関数と対数関数 - いくつかの応用(砂糖、水中、溶解率、比例)

1. $\begin{array}{}f\left(t\right)=c{e}^{kt}\\ f\left(0\right)=30\\ f\left(4\right)=10\end{array}$

定数 c、 k を求める。

$\begin{array}{}c=30\\ 30{e}^{4k}=10\\ {e}^{4k}=\frac{1}{3}\\ 4k=-\mathrm{log}3\\ k=-\frac{\mathrm{log}3}{4}\end{array}$

よって砂糖の95%が溶解するのにかかる時間は、

$\begin{array}{}f\left(t\right)=\frac{5}{100}f\left(0\right)\\ 30{e}^{-\frac{\mathrm{log}3}{4}t}=\frac{5}{100}·30\\ \frac{-\mathrm{log}3}{4}t=-\mathrm{log}20\\ t=\frac{4\mathrm{log}20}{\mathrm{log}3}\end{array}$

コード(Emacs)

Python 3

#!/usr/bin/env python3
from sympy import pprint, symbols, exp, solve, log, plot

t = symbols('t', real=True, nonnegative=True)
C = 30
K = -log(3) / 4
f = C * exp(K * t)

pprint(f.subs({t: 4}))
p = plot(f,
30,
10,
5 / 100 * 30,
(t, 0, 4 * log(20) / log(3)), show=False, legend=True)

for i, color in enumerate(['red', 'green', 'blue', 'orange']):
p[i].line_color = color

p.save('sample12.svg')


$./sample12.py 10$


HTML5

<div id="graph0"></div>
<pre id="output0"></pre>
<label for="r0">r = </label>
<input id="r0" type="number" min="0" value="0.5">
<label for="dx">dx = </label>
<input id="dx" type="number" min="0" step="0.001" value="0.01">
<br>
<label for="x1">x1 = </label>
<input id="x1" type="number" value="0">
<label for="x2">x2 = </label>
<input id="x2" type="number" value="30">
<br>
<label for="y1">y1 = </label>
<input id="y1" type="number" value="0">
<label for="y2">y2 = </label>
<input id="y2" type="number" value="30">

<button id="draw0">draw</button>
<button id="clear0">clear</button>

<script type="text/javascript" src="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/d3/4.2.6/d3.min.js" integrity="sha256-5idA201uSwHAROtCops7codXJ0vja+6wbBrZdQ6ETQc=" crossorigin="anonymous"></script>

<script src="sample12.js"></script>


JavaScript

let div0 = document.querySelector('#graph0'),
pre0 = document.querySelector('#output0'),
width = 600,
height = 600,
btn0 = document.querySelector('#draw0'),
btn1 = document.querySelector('#clear0'),
input_r = document.querySelector('#r0'),
input_dx = document.querySelector('#dx'),
input_x1 = document.querySelector('#x1'),
input_x2 = document.querySelector('#x2'),
input_y1 = document.querySelector('#y1'),
input_y2 = document.querySelector('#y2'),
inputs = [input_r, input_dx, input_x1, input_x2, input_y1, input_y2],
p = (x) => pre0.textContent += x + '\n',
range = (start, end, step=1) => {
let res = [];
for (let i = start; i < end; i += step) {
res.push(i);
}
return res;
};

let f = (x) => 30 * Math.exp(-Math.log(3) / 4 * x);

let draw = () => {
pre0.textContent = '';

let r = parseFloat(input_r.value),
dx = parseFloat(input_dx.value),
x1 = parseFloat(input_x1.value),
x2 = parseFloat(input_x2.value),
y1 = parseFloat(input_y1.value),
y2 = parseFloat(input_y2.value);

if (r === 0 || dx === 0 || x1 > x2 || y1 > y2) {
return;
}

let points = [],
y0 = 30 * 5 / 100,
x0 = 4 * Math.log(20) / Math.log(3),
lines = [[x1, 30, x2, 30, 'red'],
[x1, 10, x2, 10, 'green'],
[x1, y0, x2, y0, 'blue'],
[4, y1, 4, y2, 'orange'],
[x0, y1, x0, y2, 'purple']],
fns = [[f, 'brown']],
fns1 = [],
fns2 = [];

fns
.forEach((o) => {
let [f, color] = o;
for (let x = x1; x <= x2; x += dx) {
let y = f(x);

points.push([x, y, color]);
}
});

fns1
.forEach((o) => {
let [f, color] = o;

lines.push([x1, f(x1), x2, f(x2), color]);
});

fns2
.forEach((o) => {
let [f, color] = o;
for (let x = x1; x <= x2; x += dx0) {
let g = f(x);
lines.push([x1, g(x1), x2, g(x2), color]);
}
});

let xscale = d3.scaleLinear()
.domain([x1, x2])
let yscale = d3.scaleLinear()
.domain([y1, y2])

let xaxis = d3.axisBottom().scale(xscale);
let yaxis = d3.axisLeft().scale(yscale);
div0.innerHTML = '';
let svg = d3.select('#graph0')
.append('svg')
.attr('width', width)
.attr('height', height);

svg.selectAll('line')
.data([[x1, 0, x2, 0], [0, y1, 0, y2]].concat(lines))
.enter()
.append('line')
.attr('x1', (d) => xscale(d[0]))
.attr('y1', (d) => yscale(d[1]))
.attr('x2', (d) => xscale(d[2]))
.attr('y2', (d) => yscale(d[3]))
.attr('stroke', (d) => d[4] || 'black');

svg.selectAll('circle')
.data(points)
.enter()
.append('circle')
.attr('cx', (d) => xscale(d[0]))
.attr('cy', (d) => yscale(d[1]))
.attr('r', r)
.attr('fill', (d) => d[2] || 'green');

svg.append('g')
.attr('transform', translate(0, ${height - padding})) .call(xaxis); svg.append('g') .attr('transform', translate(${padding}, 0))
.call(yaxis);

[fns, fns1, fns2].forEach((fs) => p(fs.join('\n')));
};

inputs.forEach((input) => input.onchange = draw);
btn0.onclick = draw;
btn1.onclick = () => pre0.textContent = '';
draw();